The universe is really, really big, and there's a very good chance that it's teeming with civilizations advanced enough to contact us, if not visit us directly. So why hasn't it happened? That's the question at the center of the famous Fermi Paradox, and it's given life to a bunch of intriguing possibilities. Maybe there's something stopping all civilizations from becoming interstellar. Maybe they've uploaded their collective consciousness to a huge computer. Maybe they're all asleep. Well, one scientist is tossing a new theory into the ring: Maybe they all live on frozen ocean worlds, and they can't get past the icy crust.
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Written by Ashley Hamer November 26, 2017
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