From about 1877 to 1892, paleontologists Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope waged a war of espionage, sabotage, physical violence, and occasionally dynamite. These were the Bone Wars.
Both men wanted to discover more dinosaurs than the other, and to prove their rival a fool and a charlatan along the way. But by the end, both had driven themselves into poverty, so it's hard to say that either one of them "won." The field of paleontology certainly did notch a victory, though — between them, Cope and Marsh discovered Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, and more than 100 other previously unknown species.