There are many variations on the logic puzzle, a device that some say was first introduced by Charles Lutwidge Dodson (better known by his nom de plume Lewis Carroll). In The Game of Logic, he introduced a series of syllogisms, or logical arguments that require deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions. From this seminal book, produced in 1886, a slew of variations have proliferated, such as the logic grid puzzle, Sudoku, and crosswords. These mindbenders are not only a fun challenge, they may be good for the brain. Some studies show that puzzles can help slow the cognitive decay caused by aging.
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Here is the connectthetowns math problem: 00:01
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Here's the connectthetowns math problem: 00:01

Working out the solution to problems like the connectthetowns math problem is called calculus of variations. 01:36

Here is the solution to the connectthetowns math problem: 02:25
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The traditional setup of the Monty Hall Problem places a goat behind two doors and a sports car behind one. 00:26

It's easier to understand the solution to the Monty Hall Problem if you envision 100 doors instead of 3. 01:53

The Monty Hall Problem is not genuinely random, which is why its solution is counterintuitive. 03:53
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Archimedes' Principle states that the buoyant force on an object underwater is equal to the weight of the volume of water that the object displaces. 01:06

Using an "extreme case" to approach a problem allows people to visualize the problem's elements and solve it more easily. 01:59

Here are two more problems that lend themselves well to "extreme case" solving: 03:25
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