When you think about magic, you might think of magic wands, wizard robes, or...okay, just admit it: most of us think of Harry Potter. But during the Middle Ages, "magic" wasn't always a fantastic display of superhuman feats; in fact, William of Auvergne, a 13th-century French priest and bishop, once admitted that some works of "natural magic" should be viewed as a branch of science.
Many unusual charms and medical tips featured in medieval books sound suspiciously like witchcraft (to cure a toothache, hang a tooth from a dead man's skull around your neck?). But after taking a closer look at these spells and superstitions, medieval history starts to look a lot different from the wizardry we often think of. So what was medieval magic really like?