English, Hindi, And Greek All Came From One Proto-Indo-European Language

English, Hindi, And Greek All Came From One Proto-Indo-European Language

Indo-European languages encompass English, Latin, Sanskrit, Greek, Hindi, Russian, Celtic, and more. Linguists believe that these tongues all descended from one ancestral language, spoken between 4500 and 2500 BC. Though there is no written record of Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, scholars have recreated many words and numbers in the language, along with their theories on pronunciations.

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Key Facts In This Video

  • 1

    Proto-Indo-European (4000 B.C.) or PIE, is recognized as the language from which all Indo-European languages are descended from. (0:00)

  • 2

    Middle Egyptian is the typical form of Egyptian from 2000 B.C. to 1300 B.C. (0:30)

  • 3

    Sumerian (2000 B.C.) is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). (1:00)

  • 4

    Akkadian (1500 B.C.) is an extinct east Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia. (1:30)

  • 5

    The Hittites were a people who once lived in what is modern Turkey and northern Syria around 1600 B.C. (2:00)

  • 6

    The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of alphabets. (1550-300 B.C.) (2:30)

  • 7

    The Proto-Celtic language (800 B.C.), also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages. (3:00)

  • 8

    Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the form of Chinese spoken from the beginning of written records (around 1200 B.C.) until the 3rd century B.C. (3:30)

  • 9

    Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, still used ceremonially throughout India. (4:00)

  • 10

    Sabaic, also sometimes incorrectly known as Himyaritic, was an Old South Arabian language spoken in Yemen from 1000 BC to the 6th century A.D. (4:30)

  • 11

    Old Greek is the Greek language as spoken from Late Antiquity (c. AD 400) to around AD 1500. (5:00)

  • 12

    Aramaic (AD 0) script was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to both the Arabic and modern Hebrew alphabets. (5:30)

  • 13

    Latin (A.D. 100) was originally spoken in Latium, Italy. (6:00)

  • 14

    Ge╩╗ez, also Geez, is an ancient South Semitic language that originated in the northern region of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. (6:30)

  • 15

    Gothic (600 A.D.) is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. (7:00)

  • 16

    Modern Mayan languages descend from Proto-Mayan, a language thought to have been spoken at least 5,000 years ago (7:30)

  • 17

    Old Japanese (700 A.D.) was an early member of the Japonic family; no conclusive links to other language families have been drawn. (8:01)

  • 18

    Old English (800 A.D.) is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. (8:31)

  • 19

    Middle Chinese was spoken during Southern and Northern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century) (9:01)

  • 20

    Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. (9:31)

  • 21

    Early Middle Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language used between 794 and 1185, a time known as the Heian Period. (10:01)

  • 22

    Old Church Slavonic (1100 A.D.), also known as Old Church Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. (10:31)

  • 23

    Quechua was the language of the Inca empire which was destroyed by the Spanish in the 16th century. (11:01)

  • 24

    The Ryukyuan languages are the indigenous languages of the Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost part of the Japanese archipelago. (11:31)

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