The World Nomad Games Celebrate Traditional Nomadic Culture
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Nomadic societies exist all over the globe, moving from place to place to find fresh pasture for their herds, ply a trade, or simply seek out new locales with the seasons. There are an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world today, but that's nothing compared to what it once was. The modern way of life is threatening nomadic culture, and many are striving to preserve their heritage. That's the reason for the World Nomad Games, an event held in Kyrgyzstan.
Babies Love Peekaboo Because They Lack Object Permanence
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Why do babies love peekaboo so much? It may be because when you hide your face, they think it has ceased to exist. That's according to Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget's theories about "object permanence," or the ability to know an object still exists even when it's hidden. Watching his 13-month-old nephew at play was when Piaget first noticed something unusual about the brains of babies. When the boy's ball rolled under a table where it was still visible, he would retrieve it and keep playing. But when it rolled under the couch where it wasn't visible, the boy looked for the ball where he had seen it last. This led Piaget to investigate exactly when babies develop object permanence.
The Turk Was A Mechanical Chess-Playing Hoax That Fooled The World
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Many people were convinced in 1770 that artificial intelligence had arrived. It hadn't, of course, but the Turk had fooled everyone. The Turk was a mechanical device that seemingly played chess on its own against real human opponents. Some of the opponents included Benjamin Franklin and, according to legend, Napoleon Bonaparte. The Turk, which was an automated, turban-wearing Turkish man sitting behind a desk, would watch a player's move and take his turn by moving another chess piece with his left hand. People were stunned. Too bad it was all fake.
These Are The Odds Of Being Dealt a Royal Flush in Poker
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When you sit down to a game of Texas Hold 'Em, what are the odds you'll get a royal flush on the flop? Each hand in Hold 'Em is some combination of five cards from a deck of 52, which means there are 2,598,960 possible hands. A royal flush, on the contrary, is five specific cards: a ten, jack, queen, king, and ace, all of the same suit. Because the deck contains only one of these cards for each of the four suits, there are only four possible royal flushes that can be dealt. This brings the odds of getting a royal flush down to four in 2,598,960, or roughly one in 650,000. That's shockingly low compared to the odds of winning an Academy Award, otherwise known as an Oscar, which the Las Vegas Review-Journal reports as 1 in 11,500. The odds of getting a royal flush are just slightly lower than those of winning a gold medal in the Olympics at some point in your life: a mere 1 in 662,000. We've collected some awesome videos on this topic. Watch them now to learn more.
There Are More Games of Chess Possible Than Atoms In The Universe
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In the 1950s, mathematician Claude Shannon wrote a paper about how one could program a computer to play chess. In it, he made a quick calculation to determine how many different games of chess were possible, and came up with the number 10^120. This is a very, very large number -- the number of atoms in the observable universe, by comparison, is only estimated to be around 10^80. But Shannon's number came from a rough calculation that used averages instead of exact figures. It assumed that at any point in the game you'd have an average of 30 legal moves, for example, and that every game has an average of 80 total moves. But that's not how chess works. You have many fewer legal moves at the beginning of a game than the end, and games can go much shorter or longer than 80 moves. There are other complications as well: even if you have 30 possible moves, only a few will make sense strategically. This is why it's such a challenge to calculate the number of possible games of chess, and why to this day, no one has landed on an exact figure.
Key Facts to Know
In the 1950s, Claude Shannon estimated that there are 10^120 variations of chess games possible. There are 10^80 atoms in the observable universe. 0:24
Here's how Shannon calculated this number. 1:17
Mathematician Godfrey Hardy put his estimate at 10^10^50. 7:52