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Sponges Helped Create Human Life

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Millions of years ago sponges added oxygen to the deep ocean floor making it possible for more complex life forms to exist. ANIMALIST iOS App: http://anmlst.co/1dILpRb We're putting out new episodes Monday-Saturday, so please tune in daily and subscribe! You can also like, share, and comment on this video by using this link: https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=a26cxkVgFNM Check out some of Alex's personal YouTube content on his Damitsgood808 channel!: http://www.youtube.com/damitsgood808 Take a look at all of our other awesome animal shows at http://animalist.com And don't forget to subscribe to Animalist! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=animalistnetwork MORE FUN LINKS FOR YOUR FACES! Twitter: https://twitter.com/animalists Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AnimalistNetwork Google+: http://gplus.to/animalist
11:31
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  • 1 0:50

    A major distinction of simple animals is their tissue complexity.

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  • 2 5:42

    The first germ layers appeared about 535 million years ago.

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  • 3 8:36

    Mollusks are simple animals, yet can be very smart.

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Hank introduces us to the "simplest" of the animals, complexity-wise: beginning with sponges (whose very inclusion in the list as "animals" has been called into question because they are so simple) and finishing with the most complex molluscs, octopuses and squid. We differentiate them by the number of tissue layers they have, and by the complexity of those layers. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8css Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents: 1) Porifera 1:33 2) Cnidaria 2:36 a) Diploblasts 2:48 3) Platyhelminthes 3:33 a) Triploblasts 3:56 b) Coelom 4:36 4) Biolography 5:36 5) Nematoda 7:26 6) Rotifera 7:57 7) Molusca 8:33 References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2V_c crash course, biology, anatomy, animal, simple, complex, tissue complexity, tissue, sponge, development, porifera, multicellular, eukaryotic, eukaryote, species, cnidaria, jellies, anemone, hydra, coral, germ layer, body cavity, endoderm, ecotoderm, dipoloblast, stinging cell, cnidocyst, platyhelminthes, fluke, triploblast, coelom, acoelomate, biolography, cambrian explosion, adaptation, fossil, evolution, diversity, nematoda, pseudocoelomate, hookworm, rotifera, mollusca, chitin, snail, bivalve, octopus, squid, visceral mass, foot, mantle, radula, gastropod, cephalopod Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
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03:02
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In this video we describe a new species of carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia lyra from the deep-sea off California. C. lyra is called the harp sponge because its basic structure, called a vane, is shaped like a harp or lyre. Each vane consists of a horizontal branch supporting several parallel, vertical branches. Clinging with root-like "rhizoids" to the soft, muddy sediment, the harp sponge captures tiny animals that are swept into its branches by deep-sea currents. Typically, sponges feed by straining bacteria and bits of organic material from the seawater they filter through their bodies. However, carnivorous harp sponges snare their prey—tiny crustaceans—with barbed hooks that cover the sponge's branching limbs. Once the harp sponge has its prey in its clutches, it envelops the animal in a thin membrane, and then slowly begins to digest it. The harp sponge's unusual shape and exposure to currents may also help it to reproduce more effectively. The swollen balls at the tip of the sponge's upright branches produce packets of sperm. These sperm packets are released into passing currents and are captured on the branches of other nearby sponges. The sperm then works its way from the packets into the host sponge to fertilize its eggs. As the fertilized eggs mature, these contact sites swell up, forming bulges part way up the host sponge's branches (see photo). Publication reference: Lee, W. L., Reiswig, H. M., Austin, W. C. and Lundsten, L. (2012), An extraordinary new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia lyra, in the new subgenus Symmetrocladia (Demospongiae, Cladorhizidae), from off of northern California, USA. Invertebrate Biology. doi: 10.1111/ivb.12001 Web link to the article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ivb.12001/abstract
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This video describes four new species of carnivorous sponges from the Northeast Pacific Ocean that were discovered by MBARI scientists. Carnivorous feeding in sponges is an adaption to the food poor deep-sea environment, where filter feeding -- the typical way sponges feed -- is energetically expensive. Instead, these sponges trap small crustaceans with microscopic hooks. Once trapped, sponge cells mobilize, engulf the prey, and rapidly digest it. In addition to consuming small crustacean prey, one of these species appears to be consuming methane-oxidizing chemosynthetic bacteria. For more information visit: MBARI's news release: http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2014/killersponges/killersponges-release.html Lundsten, L., Reiswig, H.M., and Austin, W.C. (2014). Four new species of Cladorhizidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Northeast Pacific. Zootaxa 3786 (2): 101--123. http://www.biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.3786.2.1 We thank the Shape of Life for use of fluorescent dye video footage (http://www.shapeoflife.org/ & https://www.facebook.com/theshapeoflife) and Inge Chiles (http://music.iloveings.com) for original music composition.
13:37
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With a solid understanding of biology on the small scale under our belts, it's time for the long view - for the next twelve weeks, we'll be learning how the living things that we've studied interact with and influence each other and their environments. Life is powerful, and in order to understand how living systems work, you first have to understand how they originated, developed and diversified over the past 4.5 billion years of Earth's history. Hang on to your hats as Hank tells us the epic drama that is the history of life on Earth. Like CrashCourse on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents 1) Archaean & Proterozoic Eons 01:53 a) Protobionts 03:54 b) Prokaryotes 04:18 c) Eukaryotes 06:06 2) Phanerozoic Eon 06:42 a) Cambrian Explosion 06:49 b) Ordovician Period 07:36 c) Devonian Period 07:48 d) Carboniferous Period 08:13 e) Permian Period 09:10 References and licenses for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2zRD crashcourse, biology, ecology, hank green, history, life, human, earth, RNA, genetic material, protobionts, DNA, prokaryote, archaea, archaean, eon, proterozoic, era, period, epoch, fossil record, atmosphere, geologic, time, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, oxygen revolution, change, environment, eukaryote, endosymbiosis, mitochondria, plastid, algae, cambrian explosion, diversity, animal, evolution, phanerozoic, phyla, ordovician, plant, carboniferous, fossil fuel, system, permian, pangaea, gymnosperm, archosaur, dinosaur, species, extinction, event, asteroid, niche, competition, resource, jurassic, angiosperm, insect, coevolution, bird, mammal, flora, fauna, relationship Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
10:57
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http://www.facebook.com/ScienceReason ... From Big Bang To Man (Chapter 3): Origin (Abiogenesis) And Evolution Of Life. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fSciencehttp://www.youtube.com/ScienceTVhttp://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker --- FROM BIG BANG TO MAN: This is the story of the universe and our place within it. And if that's not enough, we will describe how every atom in existence today came into beeing, how galaxies formed, how our own solar system began. We will trace the progress of life on Earth from its humble beginnings to the emergence of mitochondrial Eve. And from Eve until now, we will follow the progress as humankind spread around the globe. 1. The Baby Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpFbUI7T6Yk 2. The Present Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrHMH94Mrk0 3. Origin And Evolution Of Life: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8SgnnV8nV9g 4. The First Humans: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-nLJI2BZIM 5. Evolution Of Modern Humans: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KjJ234XPC4 EVOLUTION IS REAL SCIENCE: 1. Does The Evidence Support Evolution? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1R8w_QEvEU 2. Vitamin C And Common Ancestry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SF2N2lbb3dk 3. Are We Descended From Viruses? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIsWZCSMSSs 4. Does The Fossil Record Support Evolution? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWVoXZPOCGk 5. Where Are The Transitional Forms? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfTbrHg8KGQ FACTS OF EVOLUTION: 1. Introduction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43SskX-pEqA 2. Universal Common Descent http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0UGpcea8Zg 3. Good Design, Bad Design http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Mtr3Cum74A 4. Speciation And Extinction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5kumHLiK4A 5. How Fast Is Evolution? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XgeSi1EGkU 6. What Can Embryos Tell Us About Evolution? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uAZmLYWEPGk 7. The Molecules Of Life http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvJFI3ChOUU 8. Molecular Evolution: Genes And Proteins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mA7BE3mEb64 9. Retroviruses And Pseudogenes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZvTmgCk1Lo --- The Cassiopeia Project - making science simple! The Cassiopeia Project is an effort to make high quality science videos available to everyone. If you can visualize it, then understanding is not far behind. • http://www.cassiopeiaproject.com .
09:44
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A sponge might not look like much, but these simple animals with no brain or ability to move have lived on Earth for hundreds of millions of years. They can hunt prey and spawn, and Jonathan demonstrates how in this fascinating segment about the biology of sponges! ********************************************************************** If you like Jonathan Bird's Blue World, join us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/BlueWorldTV Or Twitter! https://twitter.com/BlueWorld_TV On the Web: http://www.blueworldTV.com **********************************************************************