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Michio Kaku: What is the Strongest Material Known to Man?

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Don't miss new Big Think videos! Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Graphene is in incredibly strong, one-molecule thick layer of carbon atoms that could someday be used to create life-sustaining nanorobots. Michio Kaku:  Matthew, there is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent nanobots, microscopic robots, from circulating in the bloodstream and bulking us up, strengthening our bones, giving us the power of Superman. There is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent that.  However, the reality is much, much more complicated.  Let's take a look at nanotechnology today.  It's very primitive.  It is a multibillion dollar industry only because we use it for coatings, coatings to make fabric stronger and coatings for different kinds of appliances.  We also use it in airbags.  Believe it or not there is a tiny sensor, an accelerometer in your airbag—compliments of nanotechnology—that create the gigantic explosion of an airbag.  But that's today.  The promise is that in the coming decades with carbon nanotubes, with graphene, we'll create even new substances which can replace the silicon of computers, maybe even give us a space elevator.  Graphene for example, is a substance made out of one-molecule-thick layer of carbon.  Think about that.  Think of like Saran Wrap made out of one-molecule-thick carbon atoms.  That graphene is so strong in principle you can take an elephant, put the elephant on a pencil, suspend the pencil on graphene and graphene will not break.  That is how strong it is.  It is the strongest material known to science at the present time.  However, having these nanobots in our body—that is decades away.  We can't even create a nanobot that is large that will do most of these things on a microscopic scale.  Forget going down to the atomic scale.  So to summarize: yes, in principle there is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent nanobots from invigorating us, changing our molecular structure, changing our bone structure and skeleton.  However, the practical implementation of that is staggering.  It's not going to happen for many decades to come. Michio Kaku:  Matthew, there is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent nanobots, microscopic robots, from circulating in the bloodstream and bulking us up, strengthening our bones, giving us the power of Superman. There is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent that.  However, the reality is much, much more complicated.  Let's take a look at nanotechnology today.  It's very primitive.  It is a multibillion dollar industry only because we use it for coatings, coatings to make fabric stronger and coatings for different kinds of appliances.  We also use it in airbags.  Believe it or not there is a tiny sensor, an accelerometer in your airbag—compliments of nanotechnology—that create the gigantic explosion of an airbag.  But that's today.  The promise is that in the coming decades with carbon nanotubes, with graphene, we'll create even new substances which can replace the silicon of computers, maybe even give us a space elevator.  Graphene for example, is a substance made out of one-molecule-thick layer of carbon.  Think about that.  Think of like Saran Wrap made out of one-molecule-thick carbon atoms.  That graphene is so strong in principle you can take an elephant, put the elephant on a pencil, suspend the pencil on graphene and graphene will not break.  That is how strong it is.  It is the strongest material known to science at the present time.  However, having these nanobots in our body—that is decades away.  We can't even create a nanobot that is large that will do most of these things on a microscopic scale.  Forget going down to the atomic scale.  So to summarize: yes, in principle there is nothing in the laws of physics to prevent nanobots from invigorating us, changing our molecular structure, changing our bone structure and skeleton.  However, the practical implementation of that is staggering.  It's not going to happen for many decades to come.
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http://bigthink.com Elevator to the Stars
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Launch Dr. Kaku's playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL101E166E120852F9 "Welcome to Big Think's YouTube channel. I'm Dr. Michio Kaku. I work in something called string theory, and I want to introduce you to the top five science videos that you cannot afford to miss. First up, have you ever wondered how big infinity is? Well the folks at TED-Ed have produced an animation that helps to explain the mysteries of infinity. Check it out!"
05:55
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Don't miss new Big Think videos! Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Dr. Michio Kaku addresses this question: What is the most dangerous technology? Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Elizabeth Rodd
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Don't miss new Big Think videos! Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Dr. Michio Kaku explains one theory behind déjà vu and asks, "Is it ever possible on any scale to perhaps flip between different universes?"
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http://bigthink.com The answer to this question is at the cutting edge of science, but one theory states that dark matter is nothing but ordinary matter in another dimension hovering right above us. Michio Kaku: Well there is a theory, David, about what dark matter is.  You talk about different universes and let's say that our universe is a sheet of paper.  We live our entire life on this sheet of paper, but directly above us there could be a parallel universe, hovering right over us, perhaps inches, centimeters away and objects in this parallel universe would be invisible.  Light travels beneath the universe, so we never see this other galaxy. But gravity, gravity goes between universes because gravity is nothing but the bending of space, so if the space between two sheets of paper is bent slightly gravity then moves across. So think about it.  This other galaxy in another universe would be invisible, yet it would have mass.  That's exactly what dark matter is.  Dark matter is massive—it has gravity—but it's invisible.  It has no interactions with light or the electromagnetic force, so there is a theory that says that perhaps dark matter is nothing but matter, ordinary matter in another dimension hovering right above us.  We should also point out, however, that there are other theories too.  Dark matter is the cutting edge of science.  Some people think that maybe it is a higher vibration of the string.  All the atoms of our body represent the lowest octave of a tiny rubber band vibrating all over our body, and the rubber band could have a higher octave.  That next octave could be dark matter. So that's yet another explanation for what dark matter might be. So the bottom line is this.  There is a shelf full of Nobel Prizes waiting for you, waiting for anyone who can come up with a convincing and experimentally verified explanation of the origin of dark matter. Michio Kaku: Well there is a theory, David, about what dark matter is.  You talk about different universes and let's say that our universe is a sheet of paper.  We live our entire life on this sheet of paper, but directly above us there could be a parallel universe, hovering right over us, perhaps inches, centimeters away and objects in this parallel universe would be invisible.  Light travels beneath the universe, so we never see this other galaxy. But gravity, gravity goes between universes because gravity is nothing but the bending of space, so if the space between two sheets of paper is bent slightly gravity then moves across. So think about it.  This other galaxy in another universe would be invisible, yet it would have mass.  That's exactly what dark matter is.  Dark matter is massive—it has gravity—but it's invisible.  It has no interactions with light or the electromagnetic force, so there is a theory that says that perhaps dark matter is nothing but matter, ordinary matter in another dimension hovering right above us.  We should also point out, however, that there are other theories too.  Dark matter is the cutting edge of science.  Some people think that maybe it is a higher vibration of the string.  All the atoms of our body represent the lowest octave of a tiny rubber band vibrating all over our body, and the rubber band could have a higher octave.  That next octave could be dark matter. So that's yet another explanation for what dark matter might be. So the bottom line is this.  There is a shelf full of Nobel Prizes waiting for you, waiting for anyone who can come up with a convincing and experimentally verified explanation of the origin of dark matter.
00:30
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Dr. Michio Kaku returns to Big Think studios to discuss his latest book, The Future of the Mind (http://goo.gl/1mcGeb). Don't miss new Big Think videos!  Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Transcript - [ ] Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

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