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Michio Kaku Explains String Theory

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Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku explains the basics of String Theory in this clip from his Floating University lecture. Find out more at: http://www.floatinguniversity.com/lectures-kaku
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Full lecture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NbBjNiw4tk Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku explains the basics of String Theory in this clip from his Floating University lecture.
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Launch Dr. Kaku's playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL101E166E120852F9 "Welcome to Big Think's YouTube channel. I'm Dr. Michio Kaku. I work in something called string theory, and I want to introduce you to the top five science videos that you cannot afford to miss. First up, have you ever wondered how big infinity is? Well the folks at TED-Ed have produced an animation that helps to explain the mysteries of infinity. Check it out!"
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http://bigthink.com Discovering the Theory of Everything would be the crowning achievement of modern science, allowing mankind to master time and space.
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http://bigthink.com The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number. Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon) Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that's what I do for a living. In fact, that's my day job. I'm the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, "M" for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string. What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace. So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions. Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, "Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today." So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there's David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That's a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there's a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That's a double time universe. Now this is called F-Theory, "F" for father, the father of strings. It's not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions. Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there's more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.
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Don't miss new Big Think videos! Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 The physicist explains why other universes in the mulitverse could have many more dimensions—and could comprise Einstein's "Mind of God." Question: Are there only three dimensions in other universes or could there be more? (Submitted by Andre Lapiere)Michio Kaku:  Andre, we believe, though we cannot yet prove, that our multiverse of universes is 11-dimensional. So think of this 11-dimensional arena and in this arena there are bubbles, bubbles that float and the skin of the bubble represents an entire universe, so we're like flies trapped on fly paper.  We're on the skin of a bubble.  It's a three dimensional bubble.  The three dimensional bubble is expanding and that is called the Big Bang theory and sometimes these bubbles can bump into each other, sometimes they can split apart and that we think is the Big Bang. So we even have a theory of the Big Bang itself.  Now you ask a question what about the dimensions of each bubble.  Well in string theory—which is what I do for a living; that's my day job—In string theory we can have bubbles of different dimensions.  The highest dimension is 11.  You cannot go beyond 11 because universes become unstable beyond 11.  If I write down the theory of a 13-, 15-dimensional universe it's unstable and it collapses down to an 11-dimensional universe. But within 11 dimensions you can have bubbles that are 3 dimensional, 4-dimensional, 5-dimensional.  These are membranes, so for short we call them brains. So these brains can exist in different dimensions and let's say P represents the dimension of each bubble, so we call them p-brains.  So a p-brain is a universe in different dimensions floating in a much larger arena, and this larger arena is the hyperspace that I talked about originally.  Also remember that each bubble vibrates, and each bubble vibrating creates music.  The music of these membranes is the subatomic particles.  Each subatomic particle represents a note on a vibrating string or vibrating membranes. So, believe it or not, we now have a candidate for the "Mind of God" that Albert Einstein wrote about for the last 30 years of his life.  The "Mind of God" in this picture would be cosmic music resonating throughout 11-dimensional hyperspace. Recorded September 29, 2010Interviewed by Paul Hoffman Question: Are there only three dimensions in other universes or could there be more? (Submitted by Andre Lapiere)Michio Kaku:  Andre, we believe, though we cannot yet prove, that our multiverse of universes is 11-dimensional. So think of this 11-dimensional arena and in this arena there are bubbles, bubbles that float and the skin of the bubble represents an entire universe, so we're like flies trapped on fly paper.  We're on the skin of a bubble.  It's a three dimensional bubble.  The three dimensional bubble is expanding and that is called the Big Bang theory and sometimes these bubbles can bump into each other, sometimes they can split apart and that we think is the Big Bang. So we even have a theory of the Big Bang itself.  Now you ask a question what about the dimensions of each bubble.  Well in string theory—which is what I do for a living; that's my day job—In string theory we can have bubbles of different dimensions.  The highest dimension is 11.  You cannot go beyond 11 because universes become unstable beyond 11.  If I write down the theory of a 13-, 15-dimensional universe it's unstable and it collapses down to an 11-dimensional universe. But within 11 dimensions you can have bubbles that are 3 dimensional, 4-dimensional, 5-dimensional.  These are membranes, so for short we call them brains. So these brains can exist in different dimensions and let's say P represents the dimension of each bubble, so we call them p-brains.  So a p-brain is a universe in different dimensions floating in a much larger arena, and this larger arena is the hyperspace that I talked about originally.  Also remember that each bubble vibrates, and each bubble vibrating creates music.  The music of these membranes is the subatomic particles.  Each subatomic particle represents a note on a vibrating string or vibrating membranes. So, believe it or not, we now have a candidate for the "Mind of God" that Albert Einstein wrote about for the last 30 years of his life.  The "Mind of God" in this picture would be cosmic music resonating throughout 11-dimensional hyperspace. Recorded September 29, 2010Interviewed by Paul Hoffman
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Don't miss new Big Think videos! Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 Kaku's latest book is The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind (http://goo.gl/kGrVaR). The Universe in a Nutshell: The Physics of Everything Michio Kaku, Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics at CUNY What if we could find one single equation that explains every force in the universe? Dr. Michio Kaku explores how physicists may shrink the science of the Big Bang into an equation as small as Einstein's "e=mc^2." Thanks to advances in string theory, physics may allow us to escape the heat death of the universe, explore the multiverse, and unlock the secrets of existence. While firing up our imaginations about the future, Kaku also presents a succinct history of physics and makes a compelling case for why physics is the key to pretty much everything. The Floating University Originally released September, 2011. Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler, Kathleen Russell, and Elizabeth Rodd