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Meet one of the newest celestial bodies to be discovered: rogue planets, worlds that hurtle around the galaxy without any parent star. Caitlin Hofmeister explains how we found them, and where we think they might have come from. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/artist/52/SciShow Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: https://subbable.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Thanks Tank Tumblr: http://thankstank.tumblr.com Sources: https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/2011/05/18/free-floating-planets-may-be-more-common-than-stars/ http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2011-147 http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/info/press-releases/LonelyPlanet/ http://www.space.com/11699-rogue-alien-planets-milky-common.html http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/03/13/a-guide-to-lonely-planets-in-the-galaxy/ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5489/103.abstract http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.3544 http://io9.com/astronomers-say-theyve-found-a-rogue-planet-with-no-su-1443571329 http://io9.com/5960669/astronomers-may-have-just-discovered-the-first-known-free-floating-planet http://io9.com/5877001/what-causes-rogue-planets-to-run-away-from-their-stars http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1267520/gravitational-microlensing
In November 2012, astronomers spotted a new planet 100 light years from Earth, but this giant planet does not orbit a star. There may be as many as 200 billion rogue planets in our galaxy - and one could be headed our way. | For more How the Universe Works, visit http://science.discovery.com/tv-shows/how-the-universe-works/#mkcpgn=ytsci1 Catch all new episodes of HOW THE UNIVERSE WORKS Wednesdays at 9/8c on Science Channel! Subscribe to Science Channel! | http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=sciencechannel Check out SCI2 for infinitely awesome science videos. Every day. | http://bit.ly/SCI2YT Download the TestTube app! | http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
Today Hank brings us the news of a unique astronomical discovery - a rogue planet. He also allays our fears of an apocalyptic collision with Earth. So, this new planet is awesome, but it needs a different name - CFBDSIR J214947.2-040308.9 isn't really cutting it. Suggestions? Like SciShow? http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow! http://www.twitter.com/scishow References and image licenses for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2Dw1 scishow, science, astronomy, hank green, astrophysics, rogue planet, light year, infrared telescope, atmosphere, brown dwarf, AB doradus moving group, age, temperature, mass, fusion, difference, hydrogen, helium-3, lithium, planet, orbit, star, sphere, shape, nomad, orphan, 2012, apocalypse, dorado, galaxy, name, collision, melancholia
Some times planets just head off into the mysterious Universe all on their own, without a star to orbit. How and why do planets go rogue like this? Support us at: http://www.patreon.com/universetoday More stories at: http://www.universetoday.com/ Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: http://universetoday.tumblr.com/ Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/universetoday Google+ - https://plus.google.com/+universetoday/ Instagram - http://instagram.com/universetoday Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - firstname.lastname@example.org Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tcoZNrSveE&feature=youtu.be We’re accustomed to thinking about solar systems as places of order. All the planets orbit their parent star, everything is neatly arranged in ellipses and rings. Even the asteroid belt has division lines of dry and icy. Planets do what they’re told: orbit that star until the end of time. No Pluto, you may not go outside and play with the other planets. You’ll spend your lunch hour in detention with Haumea until we decide what we’re going to do with you for not cleaning up your play area. Some planets just can’t be held down. They’re the Jimmy Deans, the greasers, the Marlon Brandos, the Cool Hand Lukes. They break all the laws and play by their own set of rules. They’re a rolling stone, baby. To ask them to settle down would just be to deny their nature. So instead of orbiting a star, they go rogue and fly off into the Milky Way, possibly seeking fame, fortune and adventure, but keeping to the beat of their own drummer. A rogue planet is any planet that doesn't orbit a star. Instead of being a member of a solar system, it orbits the Milky Way on its own. Or in the case of really deviant planets, it’s been ejected out of the Milky Way entirely. Make no mistake, this is not a small condition affecting a few planets. It’s estimated that there are billions of rogue planets out there in the Milky Way. How does this happen? How can we get rogue planets? Is it the way they were raised? Something that happened in the way they were born? Some rogue planets started out as part of a solar system, and then something happened. Some event “kicked” them out into deep space. You could get a collision or near miss with another star, or even a black hole. As two stars pass one another, their gravitational interactions can cause all kinds of mayhem to a nice orderly orbital system. Planets can be kicked into higher or lower orbits, smashed into stars or flung out with an escape velocity that means they’ll never orbit their star again. Planets can also escape when their star disappears. Sounds impossible? Sometimes stars go out for cigarettes and just never come back. When a massive star detonates as a supernova, the force of the explosion can eject planets at tremendous velocities away from the former star, flinging those billiard balls all over the hall. But the vast majority of rogue planets probably formed early on in their solar systems. Things were rough and chaotic back then, with planets smashing into each other with all kinds of near misses. These interactions could bully out smaller neighbors with not so much as a nod. Jupiter, I’m looking at you. It’s also possible that planets could form as orphans, within a solar nebula, away from a star entirely. If a pocket of hydrogen collects together into a sphere, but it doesn't have enough mass to actually ignite as a star, it’s another type of rogue planet. We’ll just pretend these ones were raised by Nuns. What would it be like for these planets? Without the light from a star, these would be incredibly cold places. This isn't just sad metaphor. The outer layers, exposed to space would be as cold as interstellar space, just a handful of degrees above absolute zero.But deep down below the surface, there would still be leftover heat from their formation, so it’s possible that life could survive down there, kept alive within a warm cocoon. And who knows, maybe after billions of years, a rogue planet could get captured by a star again, and thawed out. It might get a second chance, or it could all end tragically, racing for pinks along the Devil’s elbow out past the Pillars of Creation. There are many ways that planets can go rogue, in fact, it’s possible that there are more starless planets in the Milky Way than there are stars. So what do you think? Should we set sail from the Sun, and seek out adventure in the Milky Way?
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http://facebook.com/ScienceReason ... Calacademy: WISE Surveys the Skies. NASA's WISE mission has just completed its first survey of the entire sky. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/ScienceTV • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker • http://www.youtube.com/RationalHumanism --- WISE is a NASA-funded Explorer mission that will provide a vast storehouse of knowledge about the solar system, the Milky Way, and the Universe. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. WISE is an unmanned satellite carrying an infrared-sensitive telescope that will image the entire sky. Since objects around room temperature emit infrared radiation, the WISE telescope and detectors are kept very cold (below -430° F /15 Kelvins, which is only 15° Centigrade above absolute zero) by a cryostat -- like an ice chest but filled with solid hydrogen instead of ice. Solar panels will provide WISE with the electricity it needs to operate, and will always point toward the Sun. Orbiting several hundred miles above the dividing line between night and day on Earth, the telescope will look out at right angles to the Sun and will always point away from Earth. As WISE orbits from the North pole to the equator to the South pole and then back up to the North pole, the telescope will sweep out a circle in the sky. As the Earth moves around the Sun, this circle will move around the sky, and after six months WISE will have observed the whole sky. As WISE sweeps along the circle a small mirror scans in the opposite direction, capturing an image of the sky onto an infrared sensitive digital camera which will take a picture every 11 seconds. Each picture will cover an area of the sky 3 times larger than the full Moon. After 6 months WISE will have taken nearly 1,500,000 pictures covering the entire sky. Each picture will have one megapixel at each of four different wavelengths that range from 5 to 35 times longer than the longest waves the human eye can see. Data taken by WISE will be downloaded by radio transmission 4 times per day to computers on the ground which will combine the many images taken by WISE into an atlas covering the entire celestial sphere and a list of all the detected objects. http://wise.ssl.berkeley.edu/mission.html .