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What Color Were Dinosaurs? - Instant Egghead #34

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02:18
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  • 1 0:21

    Alligators, crocodiles and birds are all descendants of dinosaurs.

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  • 2 1:09

    Melanosomes found in dinosaur fossils may give insight to a dinosaur's skin color.

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Dinosaurs died out some 65 million years ago, so how could we possibly determine the color of their skin--or feathers? As Scientific American's Eric R. Olson explains, new fossil evidence is pointing the way. Episode written by Kate Wong. --- WATCH more Instant Egghead: http://goo.gl/CkXwKj SUBSCRIBE to our channel: http://goo.gl/fmoXZ VISIT ScientificAmerican.com for the latest science news:http://goo.gl/lHq0CH
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03:22
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  • 1 0:57

    All of the fossils that have been discovered in the world are recorded in the fossil record.

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  • 2 1:45

    Fossilized skin tissue has been used to help researchers gain a better idea of a dinosaur's appearance.

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  • 3 2:27

    Some dinosaurs had flamboyant feathers in addition to skin and scales.

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Can we really reconstruct a dinosaur’s appearance from a bunch of million-year-old fossils? How? Learn more at HowStuffWorks.com: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/dinosaur-feather.htm CREDITS: Dakota fossil photos by Kabacchi (Hadrosauridae (Dakota) - 01, 03 Uploaded by FunkMonk) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons SOURCES: http://www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/backyard-dinosaurs/faq.cfm#2 http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2012/11/thanksgiving_turkey_is_a_dinosaur_the_sharks_alligators_beetles_and_other.html http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2012/09/creationists_and_dinosaurs_answers_in_genesis_teams_with_dissident_scientists_to_deny_feathered_dino_fossil_record.html http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2012/12/31/hooray-for-dinofuzz/ http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/07/24/fluffy-dinosaur-raises-questions-about-the-origin-of-dinofuzz/ http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/10/10/getting-to-the-root-of-fur/ http://www.cbsnews.com/news/dinosaur-skin-color-revealed/ http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2012-03/reconstructed-dinosaur-four-iridescent-wings http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-04/particle-accelerator-look-dino-skin-color http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/soft-tissue-dinosaur-fossil.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/dinosaur-feather.htm/printable http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/dinosaur.htm/printable http://www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/backyard-dinosaurs/faq.cfm#13 http://science.time.com/2014/02/12/dinosaurs-colorful-feathers/ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/02/140212-bird-dinosaur-mammal-color-metabolism/
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http://facebook.com/ScienceReason ... What colors are dinosaurs? We may be closer to figuring this out. In August 2009, a team of researchers published the first evidence of color in a fossil bird feather. The scientists hope that eventually their study can give some color to feathered dinosaurs. No one wants to pass up a good dinosaur story, including us. The press has been all over this story, but I think its only the beginning I cant wait to find out Velociraptors true color. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fSciencehttp://www.youtube.com/ScienceTVhttp://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinkerhttp://www.youtube.com/RationalHumanism --- Structural coloration in a fossil feather Investigation of feathers from the famous Middle Eocene Messel Oil Shale near Darmstadt, Germany shows that they are preserved as arrays of fossilized melanosomes, the surrounding beta-keratin having degraded. The majority of feathers are preserved as aligned rod-shaped eumelanosomes. In some, however, the barbules of the open pennaceous, distal portion of the feather vane are preserved as a continuous external layer of closely packed melanosomes enclosing loosely aligned melanosomes. This arrangement is similar to the single thin-film nanostructure that generates an iridescent, structurally coloured sheen on the surface of black feathers in many lineages of living birds. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of preservation of a colour-producing nanostructure in a fossil feather and confirms the potential for determining colour differences in ancient birds and other dinosaurs. • Learn more: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/08/20/rsbl.2009.0524.full --- Since 1853, the California Academy of Sciences has been dedicated to exploring, explaining, and protecting the natural world. It is the only place in the world to combine an aquarium, natural history museum, and planetarium all under one living roof. • http://www.calacademy.org/ .
03:16
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  • 1 0:16

    Hummingbirds are considered dinosaurs, although some flying "dinosaurs" aren't actually considered dinosaurs.

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  • 2 1:26

    During the time of the dinosaurs, there were many "winged lizards".

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  • 3 2:04

    Birds evolved from two-legged land animals.

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Hank fixes those of us who are probably wrong about what is and is not a dinosaur... and gives a refresher to those of us who do know this already. LIke SciShow on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/scishow References: http://www.lindahall.org/events_exhib/exhibit/exhibits/darwin/42_cuvier.shtml http://animalreview.wordpress.com/2011/04/14/pterodactyl-pterosaur/ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/extinctheory.html scishow, science, paleontology, dinosaur, bird, idtimwytim, pterodactyl, hummingbird, diapsid, archosaur, skull, reptile, land-dwelling, paleontologist, george cuvier, beak, wing, pterosaur, flying, quetzalcoatlus, jurassic, cretaceous, carnivore, lizard, characteristic, skeleton, convergent evolution, flight, ancestor, taxonomy, extinct, chicken, hank green
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02:47
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What color were dinosaurs? Movies depict them to be green and brown, but since we haven't seen a live dinosaur, how can we be sure? Well, Anthony is here to tell you how we might finally have an answer as he breaks down how color in animals evolved over time. Read More: New Research Revises Conventions for Deciphering Color in Dinosaurs While Suggesting Connection between Color and Physiology http://www.utexas.edu/news/2014/02/12/dinosaurs-color-physiology/ "New research that revises recently established conventions allowing scientists to decipher color in dinosaurs may also provide a tool for understanding the evolutionary emergence of flight and changes in dinosaur physiology prior to the origin of flight." Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12973.html "Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers." Color In Nature http://royalsociety.org/summer-science/2011/colour-nature/ "Colours in nature are omnipresent and serve an essential role in providing a wide range of signals: 'I am fertile!', 'I am tasty!', 'I am dangerous'." Animal Coloration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_coloration "Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces." Why Do Animals, Especially Males, Have So Many Different Colors http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/why-do-animals-especially-males-111815.aspx?link_page_rss=111815 "Why do so many animal species - including fish, birds and insects - display such rich diversity in coloration and other traits?" Melanosomes - Dark Organelles Enlighten Endosomal Membrane Transport http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786984/ "Melanosomes are tissue-specific "lysosome-related" organelles of pigment cells in which melanins are synthesized and stored." Melanosome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanosome "A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells, and is the cellular site of synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom." True-Color Dinosaur Revealed: First Full-Body Rendering http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/01/100127-dinosaurs-color-feathers-science/o/ "For the first time, scientists have decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur, a new study in the journal Science says." Dinosaur Colour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_colour "Dinosaur colour is one of the mysteries surrounding dinosaurs." What Color Were Dinosaurs? Test Of Ancient Skin Sample Will Reveal Final Answer http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/1649/20130429/what-color-dinosaurs-test-ancient-skin-sample-will-reveal-final.htm "Our books and films have long depicted dinosaurs to be some shade of green or brown- and for all we know, that might be accurate." Maniraptora http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/saurischia/maniraptora.html "We all know now that birds are dinosaurs, right?" Watch More: Make Fractal Patterns With Electricity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1I1hV8_aL4w TestTube Wild Card http://testtube.com/dnews/dnews-452-time-perception?utm_campaign=DNWC&utm_medium=DNews&utm_source=YT Million Year Old Footprints Found http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54e5Bz7m3do ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Anthony Carboni on Twitter http://twitter.com/acarboni Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 Trace Dominguez on Twitter http://twitter.com/trace501 DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com
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Over the last few decades, paleontological artists have often adorned their depictions of extinct, non-avian dinosaurs with a rainbow of picturesque color patterns, in stark contrast to depictions from the earlier part of the 20th Century. In part, this shift reflects the scientific switch from viewing dinosaurs as drab relatives of crocodiles and lizards to viewing dinosaurs as closer relatives of birds. But is there any direct fossil evidence for this change? Well, the answer is no... and yes. No fossils of extinct dinosaurs, including "mummies" complete with fossilized skin impressions, have yet revealed the true color of the dinosaur's skin, at least in terms of what we usually think of as skin. There are fossils of a couple of turtles from the Cenozoic Era that are thought to preserve the pattern of pigmentation on the shell. Nonetheless, in terms of non-feathered dinosaurs, such as Apatosaurus and duckbills, no evidence for skin color has yet been found. Recently, however, a great wealth of astounding fossils representing small, feathered dinosaurs that are not birds has been collected in Early Cretaceous rocks in China, especially near Liaoning. Fossilized feathers, basically modified scales that grow in the skin, have been found on numerous specimens. In 2008, researchers discovered microscopic structures, called melanosomes, within fossilized feathers of an ancient bird. Different kinds of melanosomes create different colors in the feathers. Following this discovery in 2010, two teams of researchers reported finding melanosomes preserved in feathers of two, small, Chinese, non-avian dinosaurs -- Sinosauropteryx and Anchiornis. In the more comprehensive study of Anchiornis, in which 29 samples were analyzed from feathers all over the body of one specimen, revealed that this 155-million-year-old, feathered dinosaur, about the size of a chicken, possessed black-and-white stripped wings and a rusty brown crest of feathers along the top and back of its skull.
01:03
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Reptile skin is a complex system of scales separated by flexible joints, which are identical to scales, except thinner. In birds, the only living group of dinosaurs, the scales are modified into feathers, except around the feet and beak. So, the hind feet of extinct dinosaurs probably looked like a bird's foot, but what about the rest of their body? Rare, non-avian dinosaur "mummies" provide intriguing direct evidence. Impressions of dinosaur skin are only preserved under most extraordinary circumstances, for example, in an environment that is extremely dry or that lacks sufficient oxygen to support organisms that quickly decompose soft tissues. One of these is the AMNH Edmontosaurus "mummy, one of the greatest dinosaur fossils ever collected. Impressions of skin are preserved over almost the entire body. The surface is covered by tubercles of varying size. Some are large and diamond-shaped; others are small and rounded. Around the base of the limbs, on the neck, and at other joints, the skin is folded, like that surrounding the joints of an elephant, presumably to allow flexibility during movement. The mummy's remarkable preservation is attributed to the notion that it lay unscavenged on the sandbar of an ancient stream for a short period, during which its skin dried out and its tendons and ligaments contracted, leaving the carcass in a contorted "death pose." Shortly thereafter, a flood quickly buried it. Another remarkable recent discovery in Patagonia reveals what the skin of some giant dinosaurs was like just before they hatched. Some of the fossilized eggs, about the size of a grapefruit, contained fossilized embryos of sauropods called titanosaurs, which were about 30-36 cm long, and patches of fossilized skin revealed that bumpy, scale-like plates, arranged in rows and rosettes, covered the embryos. The embryos were killed when a flood inundated their nesting site and buried the eggs.

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