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What Color Were Dinosaurs? - Instant Egghead #34

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Dinosaurs died out some 65 million years ago, so how could we possibly determine the color of their skin--or feathers? As Scientific American's Eric R. Olson explains, new fossil evidence is pointing the way. Episode written by Kate Wong. --- WATCH more Instant Egghead: SUBSCRIBE to our channel: VISIT for the latest science news:
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Can we really reconstruct a dinosaur’s appearance from a bunch of million-year-old fossils? How? Learn more at CREDITS: Dakota fossil photos by Kabacchi (Hadrosauridae (Dakota) - 01, 03 Uploaded by FunkMonk) [CC-BY-2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons SOURCES:
01:30 ... What colors are dinosaurs? We may be closer to figuring this out. In August 2009, a team of researchers published the first evidence of color in a fossil bird feather. The scientists hope that eventually their study can give some color to feathered dinosaurs. No one wants to pass up a good dinosaur story, including us. The press has been all over this story, but I think its only the beginning I cant wait to find out Velociraptors true color. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • --- Structural coloration in a fossil feather Investigation of feathers from the famous Middle Eocene Messel Oil Shale near Darmstadt, Germany shows that they are preserved as arrays of fossilized melanosomes, the surrounding beta-keratin having degraded. The majority of feathers are preserved as aligned rod-shaped eumelanosomes. In some, however, the barbules of the open pennaceous, distal portion of the feather vane are preserved as a continuous external layer of closely packed melanosomes enclosing loosely aligned melanosomes. This arrangement is similar to the single thin-film nanostructure that generates an iridescent, structurally coloured sheen on the surface of black feathers in many lineages of living birds. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of preservation of a colour-producing nanostructure in a fossil feather and confirms the potential for determining colour differences in ancient birds and other dinosaurs. • Learn more: --- Since 1853, the California Academy of Sciences has been dedicated to exploring, explaining, and protecting the natural world. It is the only place in the world to combine an aquarium, natural history museum, and planetarium all under one living roof. • .
Hank fixes those of us who are probably wrong about what is and is not a dinosaur... and gives a refresher to those of us who do know this already. LIke SciShow on Facebook! Follow SciShow on Twitter! References: scishow, science, paleontology, dinosaur, bird, idtimwytim, pterodactyl, hummingbird, diapsid, archosaur, skull, reptile, land-dwelling, paleontologist, george cuvier, beak, wing, pterosaur, flying, quetzalcoatlus, jurassic, cretaceous, carnivore, lizard, characteristic, skeleton, convergent evolution, flight, ancestor, taxonomy, extinct, chicken, hank green
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If you get most of your information about ancient animals from vintage cartoons or action figures, then a lot of things that you think of as "dinosaurs" actually weren't. Learn about the definition of true dinosaurs and the evolutionary relationships shared by the non-dino reptiles that lived on land, in the sea, and in the air. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: Twitter: Tumblr: Thanks Tank Tumblr: Sources:
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Over the last few decades, paleontological artists have often adorned their depictions of extinct, non-avian dinosaurs with a rainbow of picturesque color patterns, in stark contrast to depictions from the earlier part of the 20th Century. In part, this shift reflects the scientific switch from viewing dinosaurs as drab relatives of crocodiles and lizards to viewing dinosaurs as closer relatives of birds. But is there any direct fossil evidence for this change? Well, the answer is no... and yes. No fossils of extinct dinosaurs, including "mummies" complete with fossilized skin impressions, have yet revealed the true color of the dinosaur's skin, at least in terms of what we usually think of as skin. There are fossils of a couple of turtles from the Cenozoic Era that are thought to preserve the pattern of pigmentation on the shell. Nonetheless, in terms of non-feathered dinosaurs, such as Apatosaurus and duckbills, no evidence for skin color has yet been found. Recently, however, a great wealth of astounding fossils representing small, feathered dinosaurs that are not birds has been collected in Early Cretaceous rocks in China, especially near Liaoning. Fossilized feathers, basically modified scales that grow in the skin, have been found on numerous specimens. In 2008, researchers discovered microscopic structures, called melanosomes, within fossilized feathers of an ancient bird. Different kinds of melanosomes create different colors in the feathers. Following this discovery in 2010, two teams of researchers reported finding melanosomes preserved in feathers of two, small, Chinese, non-avian dinosaurs -- Sinosauropteryx and Anchiornis. In the more comprehensive study of Anchiornis, in which 29 samples were analyzed from feathers all over the body of one specimen, revealed that this 155-million-year-old, feathered dinosaur, about the size of a chicken, possessed black-and-white stripped wings and a rusty brown crest of feathers along the top and back of its skull.
What color were dinosaurs? Movies depict them to be green and brown, but since we haven't seen a live dinosaur, how can we be sure? Well, Anthony is here to tell you how we might finally have an answer as he breaks down how color in animals evolved over time. Read More: New Research Revises Conventions for Deciphering Color in Dinosaurs While Suggesting Connection between Color and Physiology "New research that revises recently established conventions allowing scientists to decipher color in dinosaurs may also provide a tool for understanding the evolutionary emergence of flight and changes in dinosaur physiology prior to the origin of flight." Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs "Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers." Color In Nature "Colours in nature are omnipresent and serve an essential role in providing a wide range of signals: 'I am fertile!', 'I am tasty!', 'I am dangerous'." Animal Coloration "Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces." Why Do Animals, Especially Males, Have So Many Different Colors "Why do so many animal species - including fish, birds and insects - display such rich diversity in coloration and other traits?" Melanosomes - Dark Organelles Enlighten Endosomal Membrane Transport "Melanosomes are tissue-specific "lysosome-related" organelles of pigment cells in which melanins are synthesized and stored." Melanosome "A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells, and is the cellular site of synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom." True-Color Dinosaur Revealed: First Full-Body Rendering "For the first time, scientists have decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur, a new study in the journal Science says." Dinosaur Colour "Dinosaur colour is one of the mysteries surrounding dinosaurs." What Color Were Dinosaurs? Test Of Ancient Skin Sample Will Reveal Final Answer "Our books and films have long depicted dinosaurs to be some shade of green or brown- and for all we know, that might be accurate." Maniraptora "We all know now that birds are dinosaurs, right?" Watch More: Make Fractal Patterns With Electricity TestTube Wild Card Million Year Old Footprints Found ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube Subscribe now! DNews on Twitter Anthony Carboni on Twitter Laci Green on Twitter Trace Dominguez on Twitter DNews on Facebook DNews on Google+ Discovery News