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The Missing Universe: Anti And Dark Matter

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http://www.facebook.com/ScienceReason ... ESA Space Science: Anti and Dark Matter Detective AMS - Searching for the missing Universe --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fSciencehttp://www.youtube.com/ScienceTVhttp://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker --- The purpose of the anti and dark matter detective AMS is to help scientists to better understand fundamental issues on the origin and structure of the Universe by observing antimatter and dark matter. As a by-product, AMS will gather a lot of other information from cosmic radiation sources on stars and galaxies millions of light years from our home galaxy. Not only astronomers, but also particle physicists are zealously waiting for AMS data. The AMS experiment is led by Nobel laureate Samuel Ting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and it involves international team composed of 56 institutes from 16 countries. ESA's partner in the AMS collaboration is the Agency's Directorate of Human Spaceflight. The first version of the experiment, AMS-01, was flown in June 1998 aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery and, after promising results the bigger and more capable version was accepted to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). • http://www.esa.int/esaHS/SEMB808CS5G_index_0.html --- What are 'dark matter' and 'dark energy'? The content of the Universe is widely thought to consist of three types of substance: normal matter, dark matter and dark energy. Normal matter consists of the atoms that make up stars, planets, human beings and every other visible object in the Universe. As humbling as it sounds, normal matter almost certainly accounts for the smallest proportion of the Universe, somewhere between 1% and 10%. The more astronomers observed the Universe, the more matter they needed to find to explain it all. This matter could not be made of normal atoms, however, otherwise there would be more stars and galaxies to be seen. Instead, they coined the term 'dark matter' for this peculiar substance precisely because it escapes our detection. At the same time, physicists trying to further the understanding of the forces of nature were starting to believe that new and exotic particles of matter must be abundant in the Universe. These would hardly ever interact with normal matter and many now believe that these particles are the dark matter. At the present time, even though many experiments are underway to detect dark matter particles, none have been successful. Nevertheless, astronomers still believe that somewhere between 30% and 99% of the Universe may consist of dark matter. Dark energy is the latest addition to the contents of the Universe. Originally, Albert Einstein introduced the idea of an all-pervading 'cosmic energy'; before he knew that the Universe is expanding. The expanding Universe did not need a 'cosmological constant' as Einstein had called his energy. However, in the 1990s observations of exploding stars in the distant Universe suggested that the Universe was not just expanding but accelerating as well. The only way to explain this was to reintroduce Einstein's cosmic energy in a slightly altered form, called 'dark energy'. No one knows what the dark energy might be. In the currently popular 'concordance model' of the Universe, 70% of the cosmos is thought to be dark energy, 25% dark matter and 5% normal matter. • http://www.esa.int/esaSC/index.html .
07:35
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http://www.facebook.com/ScienceReason ... The Mystery of Dark Matter (Chapter 4/4): Most Of Our Universe Is Missing. A mystery exists! Galaxies do not seem to have enough mass for stars to orbit at their observed speeds. Galaxies should be flying apart, but they don't. Why not? Explore the surreal world of dark matter - one of the universe's greatest mysteries. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fSciencehttp://www.youtube.com/ScienceTVhttp://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker --- This presentation is available to educators on DVD and comes complete with specially-crafted teacher notes. • http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca The Mystery of Dark Matter Video Game • http://perimeterinstitute.ca/dark_matter_game/index.html --- In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is a form of matter that is undetectable by its emitted electromagnetic radiation, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter and background radiation. According to present observations of structures larger than galaxies, as well as Big Bang cosmology, dark matter accounts for the vast majority of the mass in the observable universe. Dark matter was postulated by Fritz Zwicky in 1934, to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Subsequent to then, other observations have indicated the presence of dark matter in the universe, including the rotational speeds of galaxies, gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster, and the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Dark matter plays a central role in state-of-the-art modeling of structure formation and galaxy evolution, and has measurable effects on the anisotropies observed in the cosmic microwave background. All these lines of evidence suggest that galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the universe as a whole contain far more matter than that which interacts with electromagnetic radiation: the remainder is frequently called the "dark matter component," even though there is a small amount of baryonic dark matter. The largest part of dark matter, which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation, is not only "dark" but also, by definition, utterly transparent. The vast majority of the dark matter in the universe is believed to be nonbaryonic, which means that it contains no atoms and that it does not interact with ordinary matter via electromagnetic forces. The nonbaryonic dark matter includes neutrinos, and possibly hypothetical entities such as axions, or supersymmetric particles. Unlike baryonic dark matter, nonbaryonic dark matter does not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe ("big bang nucleosynthesis") and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational attraction. In addition, if the particles of which it is composed are supersymmetric, they can undergo annihilation interactions with themselves resulting in observable by-products such as photons and neutrinos ("indirect detection"). Nonbaryonic dark matter is classified in terms of the mass of the particle(s) that is assumed to make it up, and/or the typical velocity dispersion of those particles (since more massive particles move more slowly). There are three prominent hypotheses on nonbaryonic dark matter, called Hot Dark Matter (HDM), Warm Dark Matter (WDM), and Cold Dark Matter (CDM); some combination of these is also possible. The most widely discussed models for nonbaryonic dark matter are based on the Cold Dark Matter hypothesis, and the corresponding particle is most commonly assumed to be a neutralino. Hot dark matter might consist of (massive) neutrinos. Cold dark matter would lead to a "bottom-up" formation of structure in the universe while hot dark matter would result in a "top-down" formation scenario. As important as dark matter is believed to be in the universe, direct evidence of its existence and a concrete understanding of its nature have remained elusive. Though the theory of dark matter remains the most widely accepted theory to explain the anomalies in observed galactic rotation, some alternative theories such as modified Newtonian dynamics and tensor-vector-scalar gravity have been proposed. None of these alternatives, however, has garnered equally widespread support in the scientific community. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter .
06:53
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In order to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe, engineers and scientists from all over the world have come together to build the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011. The video presents the main features and goals of AMS in its search for the missing universe, introducing elements of physics and history of science.
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In order to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe, engineers and scientists from all over the world have come together to build the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011. The video presents the main features and goals of AMS in its search for the missing universe, introducing elements of physics and history of science.
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You've probably heard the term Dark Matter, but what is it, and how do we know it exists? Subscribe - http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=physicswoman Twitter - http://twitter.com/thephysicsgirl Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/PhysicsWoman http://www.physicsgirl.org/
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Visit http://science.nasa.gov/ for breaking science news. An advanced particle detector onboard the International Space Station may have recorded its first whiff of Dark Matter. Researchers are excited about the possibility of finally understanding what this mysterious substance is made of.
03:06
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Physicists estimate that dark matter accounts for about twenty three percent of the known universe - the only problem is that no one really knows what it is... Like SciShow? http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow Scishow! http://www.twitter.com/scishow References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-3fCA