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Quantum Mechanical Model

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007 - Quantum Mechanical Model In this video Paul Andersen explains how the quantum mechanical model of the atom refined the shell model. Uncertainty of the position of the electron as well as spin forces chemists to create an improved model. In this model the position of the electron is determined through quantum numbers. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Electron Orbitals.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_orbitals.svg. "File:Electron Shell 010 Neon - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_010_Neon_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 017 Chlorine - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_017_Chlorine_-_no_label.svg. "File:IBM Blue Gene P Supercomputer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg. "File:Neon orbitals.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neon_orbitals.JPG. "File:Qm Step Pot Temp.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qm_step_pot_temp.png. "File:Wide-angle View of the ALMA Correlator.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wide-angle_view_of_the_ALMA_correlator.jpg. Kaluza, Tim. Deutsch: √úbersicht Der Orbitale, Chemie., 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chemie_Orbitale.svg. "Quantum Mechanics." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantum_mechanics&oldid=566061324.
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008 - Atomic Models In this video Paul Andersen explains how the atomic model has changed over time. A model is simply a theoretical construct of phenomenon and so when we receive new data we may have to refine our model. Ionization energy data resulted in the formation of a quantum model that more accurately reflected the atom. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:A New System of Chemical Philosophy Fp.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_New_System_of_Chemical_Philosophy_fp.jpg. "File:Albert Einstein (Nobel).png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Albert_Einstein_(Nobel).png. "File:Atom Diagram.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atom_diagram.png. "File:Bohr Model.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bohr_Model.svg. "File:Electron Shell 007 Nitrogen - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_007_Nitrogen_-_no_label.svg. "File:Ernest Rutherford Cropped.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Rutherford_cropped.jpg. "File:Erwin Schrodinger2.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Erwin_Schrodinger2.jpg. "File:Fraunhofer Lines.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fraunhofer_lines.svg. "File:Gold Bars.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gold_Bars.jpg. "File:Helium Atom QM.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Helium_atom_QM.svg. "File:John Dalton by Charles Turner.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_Dalton_by_Charles_Turner.jpg. "File:Niels Bohr.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Niels_Bohr.jpg. File:Rainbow Brain.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rainbow_Brain.svg. File:Red Apple.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_apple.svg. "File:Rutherford Atomic Planetary Model.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rutherford_atomic_planetary_model.svg.
12:00
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Quantum numbers

from Khan Academy

NOTE: All Khan Academy content is available for free at www.khanacademy.org.

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12:29
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022 - Lewis Diagrams and VSEPR Models In this video Paul Andersen explains how you can use Lewis Diagrams and VSEPR Models to make predictions about molecules. The Lewis diagrams are a two-dimensional representations of covalent bonds and the VSEPR models show how the molecule could exist in three dimensional space. Pi bonding and odd valence electrons require an extension of this model. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: AJ. A Blue Balloon on a Ribbon, July 18, 2008. Open clip Art Library image's page. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blue_toy_balloon.svg. "File:Acetic Acid Atoms.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acetic_acid_atoms.svg. "File:AX4E0-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 16, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AX4E0-3D-balls.png. "File:AX6E0-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AX6E0-3D-balls.png. "File:Bent-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bent-3D-balls.png. "File:Linear-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linear-3D-balls.png. "File:Nitrate-ion-resonance-2D.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrate-ion-resonance-2D.png. "File:Nitrogen-dioxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen-dioxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Pi-Bond.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pi-Bond.svg. "File:Sigma Bond.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sigma_bond.svg. "File:Tetrahedral-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetrahedral-3D-balls.png. "File:Trigonal-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trigonal-3D-balls.png. "File:Trigonal-bipyramidal-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trigonal-bipyramidal-3D-balls.png.
09:57
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An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics, including Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the consequences for momentum and angular momentum being quantised.
10:58
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004 - Coulomb's Law In this video Paul Andersen explains how we can use Coulomb's law to predict the structure of atoms. These predictions can be verified through the use of Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES). Electron's are help around the nucleus because of differences in charge. As the atoms become larger the charges change and so do the structures. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "Build an Atom." PhET. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom. "File:Albert Einstein (Nobel).png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Albert_Einstein_(Nobel).png. "File:Coulomb.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 29, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coulomb.jpg. File:CoulombsLaw.svg, n.d. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CoulombsLaw.svg. "File:Electron Shell 001 Hydrogen - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_001_Hydrogen_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 002 Helium - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_002_Helium_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 003 Lithium - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_003_Lithium_-_no_label.svg. "File:Photoelectric Effect.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Photoelectric_effect.svg. File:Pointing Hand Cursor Vector.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pointing_hand_cursor_vector.svg. Svdmolen/Jeanot. Helium Atom (not to Scale), converted 2007 2005. Image:Atom.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atom.svg.
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005 - Electron Configuration In this video Paul Andersen explains how to write out the electron configuration for atoms on the periodic table. More importantly he shows you why electrons arrange themselves in shells, subshells and orbitals by using Coulomb's law and studying the first ionization energies of different atoms. ANSWERS: Cl - [Ne] 3s^2 3p^5 Ag - [Kr] 4d^10 5s^1 - Did you get [Kr] 5s^2 4d^9? There are a few exceptions to this law. Most of them are found in the f-block metals and they are not of much chemical significance. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: File:Electron Configuration Diagrams from H to Ne.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_configuration_diagrams_from_H_to_Ne.svg. "File:Electron Orbitals.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_orbitals.svg. "File:Electron Shell 001 Hydrogen - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_001_Hydrogen_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 002 Helium - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_002_Helium_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 003 Lithium - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_003_Lithium_-_no_label.svg. "File:Electron Shell 004 Beryllium - No Label.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_shell_004_Beryllium_-_no_label.svg. "File:Empirical Atomic Radius Trends.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Empirical_atomic_radius_trends.png. "File:First Ionization Energy.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_Ionization_Energy.svg. "File:Klechkovski Rule.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Klechkovski_rule.svg. "File:Periodic Table 2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed July 31, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_Table_2.svg. "File:Periodic Trends.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_trends.svg. "File:Periodic Variation of Pauling Electronegativities.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_variation_of_Pauling_electronegativities.png. RJHall. Ionization Energies of Neutral Elements, in Units of eV., October 10, 2010. File:Ionization energies.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ionization_energies.svg.