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How Are False Memories Formed?

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Have you ever passionately defended a memory you believed to be real, yet it's not? More often than not though, your mind may be deceiving you—in fact, kids under the age of three aren't quite yet capable of retaining long-term memories. And when Maya Angelou famously noted, "People will forget what you said, but people will never forget how you made them feel," she actually provided some interesting insight into how emotions can influence and create false memories. Feelings allow people to build vivid memories and act as markers of particularly emotional events, yet the images they create in our mind are often clouded by our mental state. But emotion isn't the only thing that exacerbates fraudulent memories. Misinformation and misattribution—or getting the facts wrong to begin with—are among the biggest factors, along with situational exposure to events, such as through the news or Internet. For example, people have the tendency to believe they attended an event because they've viewed prolonged coverage on the evening news. Or, after people have been told a story by a friend or family member enough times, they can begin to internalize the and misinterpret the story into a false memory.

So how can we tell which memories are real and which are imaginary? Why does our brain do this—and how does this relate to déjà vu? The brain is the most powerful and complex organ in your body. Add in our mix of daily emotions, responsibilities, tasks and substances like coffee and food, and memory becomes even harder to regulate and process. Watch this quick playlist to learn more about how false memories are made implanted in our minds, and what we can do to better preserve our recollections.

03:05
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Do signals in our brain sometimes create a false memory? Tune in on The Science Channel | For more visit http://science.discovery.com/tv/through-the-wormhole/#mkcpgn=ytsci1
04:21
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Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus discusses studying the power of suggestion, including implanting false memories in test subjects. After three suggestive interviews, Loftus found she was able to convince subjects they had been lost in a shopping mall as a small child.
04:49
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Veronica Belmont from "Fact or Fictional" joins Anthony to talk about implanting false memories. Is it possible, or will it forever be a thing of science fiction? Read More: Mice "incepted" with false memories provide insight into neural phenomena http://www.riken.go.jp/en/pr/press/2013/20130726_1/ "Researchers at the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics and MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory have incepted false memories into mice, potentially illuminating the mechanisms underlying the human phenomenon of "recalling" experiences that never occurred." Creating a False Memory in the Hippocampus http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6144/387 "Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus." Creating False Memories in Mice http://news.discovery.com/tech/biotechnology/creating-false-memories-mice-1307251.htm "A mouse associated the negative experience from one box with the positive environment of another." MIT Scientists Create False Memories in Mice, Creep Out All Other Species http://www.geekosystem.com/false-memories-mice/ "Don't worry, it'll be a while before people can implant a false memory in your brain." Susceptibility to long-term misinformation effect outside of the laboratory http://www.eurojnlofpsychotraumatol.net/index.php/ejpt/article/view/19864/html "How often do you answer the question "How do you know?" with "Because I remember"? We rely on memory every day and may assume that it is veridical, especially when memories are vivid and detailed." False Memories of Self-Performance Result From Watching Others' Actions http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/false-memories-of-self-performance-result-from-watching-others-actions.html "Did I turn off the stove, or did I just imagine it? Memory isn't always reliable." Observation Inflation Your Actions Become Mine http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/9/1291 "Imagining performing an action can induce false memories of having actually performed it-this is referred to as the imagination-inflation effect." But Did You See the Gorilla? The Problem With Inattentional Blindness http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/But-Did-You-See-the-Gorilla-The-Problem-With-Inattentional-Blindness-165589646.html "The most effective cloaking device is the human mind" The Invisible Gorilla http://www.theinvisiblegorilla.com/gorilla_experiment.html "Imagine you are asked to watch a short video (above) in which six people-three in white shirts and three in black shirts-pass basketballs around." Veronica on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/Veronica Watch Fact or Fictional?: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZHOnKmxXrHDWVL6Sgk2ETw?sub_confirmation=1 Watch More: Matrix Brain Downloads: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZipR_MuScw Amnesia in Movies: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSo-HiR8MZ4 Your Memory Sucks: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxSHf_BeVUA ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Anthony Carboni on Twitter http://twitter.com/acarboni Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 Trace Dominguez on Twitter http://twitter.com/trace501 DNews on Facebook http://facebook.com/dnews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com
07:16
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Instead of recording every event in your life, the brain records conjunctions of the occurrence of certain events. Out of the conjunction, it can then replay and reconstruct.
02:23
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Sleep is incredibly important, and a lack of it could have some serious consequences! Join Laci as she discusses how sleep deprivation could lead to the creation of false memories! Follow DNews on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/dnews Follow Laci on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/gogreen18 Read More: Sleep Deprivation and Memory Loss http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-deprivation-effects-on-memory “It is no secret that a good night's sleep makes you feel better.” Sleep-deprived? You may start forming false memories http://www.techtimes.com/articles/11120/20140723/sleep-deprived-you-may-start-forming-false-memories.htm “A recent psychology study tested the memories of sleep-deprived people compared to people who got a full night's sleep.” Sleep Deprivation and False Memories http://pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/07/15/0956797614534694.abstract “Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories.” Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic http://www.cdc.gov/features/dssleep/ “Sleep is increasingly recognized as important to public health, with sleep insufficiency linked to motor vehicle crashes, industrial disasters, and medical and other occupational errors.” Conquer Fear Of Flying http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/conquer-fear-flying Watch More: Why You Can’t Trust Your Memory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkvOMt34hAo TestTube Wild Card http://testtube.com/dnews/dnews-264-strange-eating-disorder-ramen-addiction?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=DNews&utm_campaign=DNWC Why Do We Sleep Walk? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTjQWkCD39c ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Tara Long on Twitter https://twitter.com/TaraLongest Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
04:47
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Learn about memory reconstruction, source monitoring, and flashbulb memories.
03:40
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How much of your memory can you trust? Anthony tells you what goes into remembering something and how, even when we think our memories is strong, we're all susceptible to false or changing memory! Read More: False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/11/12/1314373110 "In a unique memory-distortion study with people with extraordinary memory ability, individuals with highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) were as susceptible as controls to false memory." The Formation of False Memories http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Papers/Py104/loftusmem1.pdf "For most of this century, experimental psychologists have been interested in how and why memory fails." False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals https://webfiles.uci.edu/eloftus/Patihis_HSAM_PNAS2013.pdf "The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions." Where does the brain store our memories? http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/where-brain-store-our-memories "Science tells us that while our brain may store different types of memories in various areas of the brain, recalling a memory is a brain-wide process." How Many of Your Memories Are Fake? http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/how-many-of-your-memories-are-fake/281558/ "When people with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory—those who can remember what they ate for breakfast on a specific day 10 years ago—are tested for accuracy, researchers find what goes into false memories." MIT scientists implant a false memory into a mouse's brain http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/inception-mit-scientists-implant-a-false-memory-into-a-mouses-brain/2013/07/25/47bdee7a-f49a-11e2-a2f1-a7acf9bd5d3a_story.html "Sometime soon, a lab mouse could wake up thinking he had snuggled up to a girl mouse the night before. But he hadn't. The memory would be fake." I Could Have Sworn... http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/new_scientist/2013/09/elizabeth_loftus_interview_false_memory_research_on_eyewitnesses_child_abuse.html "An interview with false-memory expert Elizabeth Loftus." Study Finds Memories Can Change with Each Recall; Researcher Sees Criminal Justice Implications http://www.abajournal.com/news/article/study_finds_memories_can_change_with_each_recall/ "A Northwestern University researcher has found that memory retrieval may be like the game of telephone." Elizabeth Loftus: The fiction of memory http://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_loftus_the_fiction_of_memory.html "Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus studies memories." Why Science Tells Us Not to Rely on Eyewitness Accounts http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=do-the-eyes-have-it "Eyewitness testimony is fickle and, all too often, shockingly inaccurate." Watch More: How to Erase Bad Memories http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVoyxZc0NrA TestTube Wild Card: http://testtube.com/dnews/dnews-264-strange-eating-disorder-ramen-addiction?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=DNews&utm_campaign=DNWC Your Memory Lies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxSHf_BeVUA ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Anthony Carboni on Twitter http://twitter.com/acarboni Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 Trace Dominguez on Twitter http://twitter.com/trace501 DNews on Facebook http://facebook.com/dnews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com
03:58
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Our minds don't capture and record reality, but rather blend experience with fantasy—a process that often results in convincing, yet completely false, memories. Question: How do we produce false memories? Ottavio Arancio:  It happens in most likely you were storing things in the brain and you are confusing from maybe your fantasy with the reality and... or, one possibility.  The other possibility, like you had the wrong perception of what you saw, so you're storing this in a way because you are convinced that it's that way, but it was not that way.  Let's say I make two good examples.  I mean you're convinced that maybe you were not...  did not pay that much attention and you're convinced that person was dressed in red instead it was pink or a color close to red then you store the thing that way.  Obviously with time the memory will become more faraway, certain aspects could disappear and we could fill them with other aspects just to fill the gap, so we make up for the memory and we build up the memory in the time of recalling the memory we are recalling stuff that occurred in other circumstances because when it's a memory it's not... Our brain is not a recorder like passive recorder. It's more active processes, so being an active process there could be ways of you know changing it because actively we can change it.  That's something which is important.  It's not our brain is like a tape recorder or a TV or a VCR.  I mean it's not.  It's more active than that and there are several steps in the process of memory and recalling a memory which there are many, many steps, several steps and each one of them as a memory could be labile and could be you know changed into something else, substituted by something else. Question: Can you explain this process? Ottavio Arancio:  Yeah.  You have to look at memory as a process in which there are several steps which they apply some interference from.  It's not the right word, processing of our brain of this information and this is just purely active and it's just changed.  It's like when you change something from analogue to digital just to make one of those things, the video from the computer and in the process of changing from analogue to digital you can change something and it would not be the same you know.  What if you change a chip or something and you change the yellow into a green, so whatever was yellow will be green and... or A, when I say an A you can even artificially change into a B if want because if you tell the computer to change all the A into a B then everything will be a B or sometimes during this process some A will change into a B then it will change.  There is some activity, something that is there occurring and it changes.
02:37
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A memory matching game pits your ability to remember ... against some added stressors. BRAIN GAMES AIRS MONDAYS at 9P.
06:30
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A recent study took a look at how photographs affect your memories. Trace sits down with Jason Silva from Brain Games and Shots Of Awe to discuss. Get 15% off http://www.domain.com's domain names and web hosting when you use coupon code DNEWS at checkout! Subscribe to Jason on Shots Of Awe: https://www.youtube.com/user/ShotsOfAwe Follow Jason on Twitter: https://twitter.com/JasonSilva Read More: Does taking photographs ruin your memory? http://www.theguardian.com/news/reality-check/2013/dec/10/does-taking-photographs-ruin-your-memory “A scientist wanted to find out whether photographing objects affects what's remembered about them.” Taking photographs ruins the memory, research finds http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/10507146/Taking-photographs-ruins-the-memory-research-finds.html “Taking photographs at a birthday or a wedding has become as natural as blowing out candles or cutting the cake.” No Pictures, Please: Taking Photos May Impede Memory of Museum Tour http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/no-pictures-please-taking-photos-may-impede-memory-of-museum-tour.html “Visit a museum these days and you’ll see people using their smartphones and cameras to take pictures of works of art, archeological finds, historical artifacts, and any other object that strikes their fancy.” Is Technology Making Us Stupid (and Smarter)? http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mr-personality/201305/is-technology-making-us-stupid-and-smarter “Imagine one day without your smartphone: you would probably be unable to recall your to-do list, find where you need to go, and keep up with boredom.” Watch More: The Instagram Generation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEUnYah1aRw&list=UUlYb9NpXnRemxYoWbcYANsA Turning Bad Memories Into Good Ones https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm5nnJNvcVE ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Tara Long on Twitter https://twitter.com/TaraLongest Laci Green on Twitter http://twitter.com/gogreen18 DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
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